WHAT IS PROJECT MANAGEMENT

WHAT IS PROJECT MANAGEMENT?

What is ‘PROJECT’?

A Project is a temporary effort made to produce a unique product or service. A Project manager has created a Project management plan for the project. It’s planning is a unique understanding of inter-related activities that have a well-defined beginning and end. In addition, it often includes employees from cross-functional groups, working under specific constraints, schedules, and requirements of resources. Characteristics of a ‘Project’ are:

  • TEMPORARY– Definitive beginning & end
  • Unique– New undertaking, unfamiliar ground

Key Aspects of Project

The success of a Project, based on four ‘P’ key aspects. They are:

  • Plan
  • Process
  • People
  • Power

So in this post, we will discuss Project Management, it’s objectives, key aspects, challenges, methods, styles and methodologies. Also, the role of Project Manager, Project Life Cycle, Traditional and Modern management System too.

What is ‘PROJECT MANAGEMENT’?

Project management is the practice of starting, planning, executing, controlling, and closing a team’s work to achieve specific goals and meet specific success criteria at specific times. Moreover, it is the application of skills, knowledge, tools, and techniques to meet the needs and expectations of stakeholders for a project. It has evolved in order to plan, coordinate and control the complex and varied activities of modern industrial and commercial projects.

The purpose of it is to plan or forecast threats and problems as much as possible and to plan, organize and control activities so that the project can be completed successfully despite all the risks. In other words, it is a prediction or prevention for a project.

Project management is a systematic way of planning, scheduling, implementation, monitoring and control of various aspects of a project. PERT and CPM are two network-based project management techniques that demonstrate the flow and sequence of activities and events.

1. PERT (Program/ Project Evaluation & Review Technique)

  • PERT was developed by Navy Special project office for the Polaris Project in 1958. It is used for Research & Development Projects.
  • ‘EVENT’ is the point at which activity is completed whereas the different portions of tasks are known as ‘ACTIVITY’.
  • PERT is basically a tool for planning and control of time. It is considered as a Probabilistic tool.
  • It is Event-Oriented Network.
  • In PERT, Time is the controlling factor. It is restricted to the time variable.
  • PERT is a technique used to manage uncertain activities of a project. It doesn’t deal with the concept of ‘Crashing’.
  • It is used for the analysis of Project Scheduling Problems.
  • In PERT, the critical path is the path which joins the critical events.

2. CPM (Critical Path Method)

  • CPM was developed in Du Pont Company by Walker & Kelly in 1957. It is used in construction projects.
  • ‘NODE’ is the point at which activity is completed whereas the different portions of tasks are known as ‘JOB’.
  • CPM controls both time and costs in planning. It is considered as a Deterministic tool.
  • It is Activity-Oriented Network.
  • In CPM, Cost is the controlling factor. It includes a time-cost trade-off.
  • CPM is a statistical technique that manages well-defined activities of a project. It deals with the concept of ‘Crashing’.
  • Estimates of activity duration are based on historical data. It is a Single/One-time Estimate.
  • In CPM, the critical path is the path which joins the critical activities.

Challenges of Project Management

  • The primary challenge is to achieve all goals with given constraints. Furthermore, it includes information regarding the scope, time, quality and budget of a project.
  • The secondary challenge is to optimize the allocation of necessary inputs and also implement them to meet pre-determined objectives.

Read: CONTRACT DOCUMENT & IT’S TYPES

Project Management Triangle

The Project Management Triangle uses to analyze projects. This is also referring as Project Triple Constraints or Primary Objectives. The objectives of the project have developed within the range set by Project Triple Constraints. A model of the Constraints of Project Management contents that:

  • The quality of the work constrains by the budget, time frame and scope of the project.
  • Projects manage trade between constraints.
  • A barrier to compensation or loss of quality requires a change.

A Triple Constraints or Project Management Triangle based on the following terms:

PROJECT-MANAGEMENT
PROJECT MANAGEMENT TRIANGLE
  1. TIME- The amount of time available to complete the project.
  2. COST- The budgeted amount available for the project.
  3. SCOPE- Work must be done to produce the project end result.
  • Increased Scope = Increased Time + Increased Cost
  • Tight Time = Increased Cost + Reduced Scope
  • Tight Budget = Increased Time + Reduced Scope

Types of Project Management Systems

1. Traditional Management System

Traditional management System focuses on goals and objectives which the company establishes. These goals are related to increased sales or profits. In Traditional Management system, employees are responsible for the quality of the product

Traditional-Management-Process
Traditional-Management-Process

Key Organization Characteristics of Traditional Management System:

  1. Structure
  2. Work Flow
  3. Accountability
  4. Boundaries
  5. Knowledge
  6. Measurement
  7. Improvement
  8. Customer Experience
  9. Compliance
  10. Strategy

2. Modern Management System

The Modern management process presents unique projects. This process is a one-time project. This requires a more flexible process and scope. In modern project management, there are many changes related to planning, organizing, leading and controlling tasks.

  1. Plan: Project Planning has become more flexible. Project Plans and planning process are the most significant influence of Modern management system.
  2. Lead: Single-time effort requires due to the complexity and diversity of skills.
  3. Organize: It requires greater flexibility as well. They are looking for a solution that pulls them out of time-consuming spreadsheet calculations, data exports, manual report creation, manual monitoring, and tracking tools.

Key Areas of Project Management

  1. Scope Management
  2. Issue Management
  3. Cost Management
  4. Quality Management
  5. Communication Management
  6. Risk Management
  7. Change Control Management

Project Life Cycle

  1. Initiating Process Group
  2. Planning Process Group
  3. Executing Process Group
  4. Monitoring & Controlling Group
  5. Closing Process Group
Project-Management-Process-Groups
Project-Management-Process-Groups

Role of Project Manager

1. Process Responsibilities

  • Project Issues
  • Disseminating Project Information
  • Mitigating Project Risk
  • Quality
  • Managing Scope
  • Metrics
  • Managing the overall Work Plan

2. People’s Responsibilities

  • Implementing Standard Processes
  • Establishing Leadership Skills
  • Setting Expectations
  • Team Building
  • Communicator Skills

Methodologies & Styles

  1. Agile
  2. Traditional
  3. Waterfall
  4. Adaptive
  5. Rational Unified Process
  6. Critical Chain
  7. Extreme
  8. Scrum
  9. Six Sigma
  10. Crystal
  11. Joint Application Development

Read: SPECIFICATION IN ARCHITECTURE

Project Programming

Project programming is a process in which architects take clients to communicate and identify, for project objectives and constraints, and in the future. In other words, it is the beginning-to-end programming of a project. It also contains information about the occupants of the building as well as user groups. All the details are written in the project programming about the project designing objectives, a list of material needs and priorities and all the requirements. Project Programming is also known as Pre-Design. The purpose of it is as follows:

  • Finalize the project objectives
  • Determine the building and user requirement
  • Establish building areas, cost, structure details, etc.
  • Set the scope of the work

Resource Levelling

Resource levelling is a technique of project management in which the beginning of the end of dates is adjusted based on resource scarcity with the goals of balancing the demand for resources or the available supply. Project planning resource levelling is the process of resolving the resources requireds for certain tasks due to these constraints.

It can also be used to balance the workload of primary resources throughout the project, usually at the expense of one of the traditional triple constraints (time, cost, and scope). This technique is closely related to Critical path methods. Some of Resource Levelling Techniques are:

  • Critical Path
  • Fast Tracking
  • Crushing

Project Control

Project Controls are data gathering, management, and analytical processes uses to predict and constructively influence the time and cost outcomes of a project or programs. It includes those people, processes and tools that plan, manage and use cost and schedule issues and any risk events that may affect a project. It essentially amounts to a project management process stripped of the convenience of sub-processes for security, quality, organizational, behavioural and communications management.

Importance or Discipline of Project Controls:

  • Project Strategy- Undertaking Planning & methods studies
  • Scheduling- Development, Updating & Maintenance
  • Cost Estimation, Cost & Value Controls
  • Risk Management- Maintaining the Risk register, analysis or assessments
  • Earned Value Management & Scheduled
  • Document Control
  • Forensic Assessments
  • Supplier Performance Measurement
  • Control Domain

Project Scheduling

Project scheduling is a schedule listing the project details for activities and deliverables, from beginning to end. Also, it uses in the portfolio management parts of project planning, project management. Scheduling is a process of organizing, controlling and optimizing tasks and workloads in a production or manufacturing process. The maintenance and development of the project schedule are dependent on the size and scope of the project. For preparing a Project Schedule, the following things to be needed-

  • Project Scope 
  • Sequence of Activities
  • Task grouped in 5 Project Phases- Conception, Definition & Planning, Launch, Performance, Close
  • Task Dependencies Map
  • Project Milestones 
  • Critical Path Analysis

Project Assessment

Project assessment is a legislative planning and evaluation process. It is intended to ensure environmental, social, cultural and economic, which protect the well-being of residents and communities from any significant adverse effects that a development project may cause. Project evaluation began to ensure that the negative impacts could be reduced sufficiently before considering the potential environmental and socio-economic impacts of the project. This process is used to direct changes in project design that can help reduce impacts on the environment and people.

What is Project Report

A Project report is the use of formal and informal reports to communicate the status of the project. According to these, we can manage expectations from stakeholders and team members to provide project scope, time and budget. Essentials used for Project Reports are:

  • Project Status
  • Resources Workload
  • Time Sheets
  • Expense Tracking

Types of Project Reports

  • Status Report
  • Risk Report
  • Board or Executive Report
  • Resources Report

What is project management pdf

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Frequently Asked Questions

Key Aspects of Project?

1. Plan
2. Process
3. People
4. Power

What Is PERT

PERT-(Program/ Project Evaluation & Review Technique) was developed by Navy Special project office for the Polaris Project in 1958. It is used for Research & Development Projects.
‘EVENT’ is the point at which activity is completed whereas the different portions of tasks are known as ‘ACTIVITY’.
PERT is basically a tool for planning and control of time. It is considered as a Probabilistic tool.

Types of Project Management Systems?

1. Traditional Management System
2. Modern Management System

Role of Project Manager?

1. Process Responsibilities
Project Issues
Disseminating Project Information
Mitigating Project Risk
Quality
Managing Scope
Metrics
Managing the overall Work Plan
2. People’s Responsibilities
Implementing Standard Processes
Establishing Leadership Skills
Setting Expectations
Team Building
Communicator Skills

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