Project management is a term uses in the construction sector and throughout the construction process. It is the application of skills, knowledge, tools and techniques to meet the needs and expectations of stakeholders for a project. In addition, Project management is the practice of starting, planning, executing, controlling. Also, closing a team’s work to achieve specific goals and meet specific success criteria at a specified time. Furthermore, this management process is a very large process. In project management or the entire process of a project, there are various elements and terms are uses.
So in this post, we will discuss the various elements of Project Management and their properties too. Moreover, Elements of Project Management like Muster Roll, Imprest Cash, Measurement book, Contingencies, Deposit Works, Advance Payments, Deposit Works, Work Charge Establishment, Indent of Store, Stock Account, Schedule of Rates (SOR), Bill of Quantities (BOQ), Competent Authority, Technical Report, etc.
ELEMENTS OF Project Management
Some of the elements used in the entire process of a project or also in Project Management process.
- Measurements are the determination or estimation of ratios of Amounts.
- The measurement of a property can be classified by the following criteria i.e. Type, Magnitude, Unit & Uncertainty.
STANDARD METHODS OF MEASUREMENTS (SMM)
- It is a document of rules and provision that can be applied in the measurement of the functions. Also, this document uses in all the major functions, tasks, trades or elements of the construction process.
- The SMM consists of five different parts:
- The general definition of the terms in the document.
- General Principles of the document & items descriptions
- Rules for the preparation of the BOQ
- General introduction of the BOQ
- The units & methods of measurements
2. MEASUREMENT BOOK
- Measurement book is a record book where the work done measurement is maintained.
- In a public work department, a measurement book considers a very important document.
- In addition, it contains some of the following points-
- Standard Measurement Book
3. MUSTER ROLL
- Muster Roll is a record book of Labour or an also each day Labour record on site.
- It is a type of attendance sheet for Labour on site.
- The workers or labourers payments are based on muster roll sheets.
- Moreover, the Muster Roll Sheet consists of two parts:
- The first part, columns for the name, date, rates of wages, workers payment, due payments, Signature of the person taking attendance and also the signature of the paying officer etc. In other words, the first part of a sheet contains the details regarding the Labour work status, designation, etc.
- The second part, the amount of work done by the labourers as well as the details of the progress of the work register.
4. IMPREST CASH
- Imprest cash is the upfront funding for some payments in the project.
- Moreover, in the case of public works, the Imprest cash deposit in Imprest’s account. This account is under the appropriate authority to make some payments during construction.
- Moreover, some of the following points to be noted by the officer or authority holding the account:
- Limitation of Use
- Safety of Imprest Cash
5. DEPOSIT WORKS
- Deposit works are the works whose cost is to be deposit from non-government funds.
- The funds are deposit in cash at the disposal of the Divisional Officer.
- The PWD’s prepare the design and estimate of the accumulated works and then a fixed percentage is added to cover the departmental expenditure.
- The work done by PWD on behalf of municipalities or public bodies falls in this category.
6. ADVANCE PAYMENTS
- When the payment is made to the contractor on the account running for the work done by him, but not measured, it is known as Advance payment.
- The term ‘Advanced payment’ means the amount paid before entering the measure.
- Further, advance payment is only made under special circumstances.
- Moreover, the cost of the work should in no case be less than the advance payment paid to the contractor.
7. WORK-CHARGED ESTABLISHMENT
- Work-charged establishments are those establishments that work directly.
- Employees work under this establishment on a temporary basis. At or upon completion of the project.
- Moreover, a percentage of 1.5 to 2% considers in the estimate for work-charged establishment.
- Moreover, the workers or employee works on Work-charged establishment are the Site Supervisors, Chowkidars, Clerks, etc.
8. BILL OF QUANTITIES (BOQ)
- A BOQ is a document which lists all the necessary items for the construction of a project.
- The process of writing the Bill of Quantities called Billing.
- In other words, it is a description of various items of work that give a description of the unit of properties and rates.
- The main function of BOQ is to provide a basis on which tenders can be obtained from prospective contractors.
- BOQ also helps in preparing Revised Estimates.
- The word ‘Contingency’ means a chance event or something like that.
- The amount of Contengencies is not for the following:
- Allowance for inflation
- Cost increase due to provision in the budget
10. INDENT OF STORE
- The material from the store refers to the process of ‘Indenting’.
- The Indent is in the form of a book and also they are number sequentially.
- This Indent form consists of three parts- Counterfoil, Indent & Invoice.
11. ISSUE RATES
- Issue rate is the rate fixed for releasing each article from the store.
- This issue rates set on a no-profit or no-loss basis. Also, it should cover all expenses up to the point of issue of the article.
- Furthermore, the issue rates creating keeping in mind the actual cost, transportation charges, losses due to depreciation, etc.
- Moreover, the Issue rates should be reviewed and they should be revised to coincide with market rates.
12. STOCK ACCOUNT
- The Stock account is a term for the quantity account in the store and the price account of the material.
- This account is under the supervision of the Divisional Officer. In addition, the former is maintained by the subdivisional officer and the latter is maintained by the divisional officer.
13. RATE ANALYSIS
- Rate analysis is the process of determining the Rate of an object.
- Moreover, the two main purposes of analyzing the rate of an object:
- To determine the actual cost per unit of item.
- Examining objects for content creation or item making as well as the use of economics processes.
- Correct rate analysis of a particular item, the following points are necessary for a person doing rate analysis:
- Good knowledge of Construction Work & also the familiarity with the trade
- Information regarding Cost of Materials, Labour & Equipment’s
- Labour work status i.e. the work task per day, etc.
14. SCHEDULED OF RATES (SOR)
- A document in which the list or Schedule of rates of different items prepares for the rate analysis of an item. This document refers to as SOR.
- SOR prepares by large public bodies or concerns.
- SOR consists of a set of items of work during the entire construction process.
- It also serves as an important document for the CPWD (Central Public Works Department). The scheduled rates of CPWD include basic rates of material, labour etc.
15. COMPETENT AUTHORITY
- The Competent authority is any person or entity legally delegated or assigned a task assigned to a delegated authority, capacity or power.
- Moreover, the authority makes the government responsible for the safety. In whole or in part, of environmental safety and efficiency of vessel traffic and protection of the environment.
16. TECHNICAL REPORT
- A Technical Report is a type of Document. A document that describes the process, progress, problems or results of Technical or Scientific Research.
- Furthermore, it is a definitive document that provides information related to project tasks or exercises.
- In addition, a technical report is having more detail than an article published in a journal or paper presents at the conference.
- According to their usage, there are different types of Technical Reports prepares:
- Committee Report
- Feasibility Report
- Institutional Report
- Project Proposals
- Project Report
- Status Report
- Trend Report
17. SUSPENSE ACCOUNT
- Suspense Account is a temporary account. It is also term as a ‘small business account’.
- Generally, this account uses to record certain quantities on a temporary basis.
- In other words, it is an account in the ledger in which the amount is temporarily documented.
- Moreover, a Suspense account is used only because the appropriate time in that account could not be determined that the transaction was recorded.
18. TAKING-OFF PROCESS
- A process for analyzing technical drawings and specifications to identify elements. This process refers to as Taking-off Process.
- It is the process by which the dimensions of functions are calculated or measured by a diagram. In addition, the dimension is recorded on dimension papers or similar computerized formats.
- Billing is the final stage in the bill preparation process.
- Moreover, the process in which items and their associated quantities are abstracting onto the standard billing sheets. Also, it enables the tenderer to price each item and arrive at the total tender amount.
- Methods of Bill Preparation:
- Billing Direct- The abstraction phase is omitted by transferring items directly from the dimension sheet to the bill.
- Alternative Method of Billing- This method is convenient to use. Moreover, it has the advantage of eliminating the process of abstracting. Also, it is having a description of the items in writing.
20. GANTT CHART
- The Gantt chart is a bar chart that shows the Project schedule. In other words, it is a visual representation of a project schedule.
- A chart in which a series of horizontal lines shows the amount of work-production with the amount employed for those periods. This chart refers to a Gantt Chart.
- It is a popular Project management tool for planning and scheduled projects.
- It also shows the initial and final dates of terminal and summary elements of project management or a project.
- Gantt Chart is most commonly used in ‘Project Schedule Tracking’.
21. WORK-BREAK DOWN STRUCTURE
- A Work-Break down structure (WBS), is an important project that organizes teamwork into a manageable section.
- The Work-break down structure has many advantages in addition to defining and organizing project work.
- The purpose of a Work-break down structure is to reduce complex activities to a collection of tasks.
- Reasons to use WBS’s in Projects:
- It helps to define and organize the scope of the total project more accurately and specifically.
- WBS helps in assigning responsibilities, resource allocation, project monitoring and project control. It also allows for better estimation of cost, risk and time.
- It allows you to double-check all the deliverables specifies with the stakeholders and make sure there is nothing missing or overlapping.
22. INTERIM BILL OR PAYMENT
- Interim bills or payments include measurements of work done by the contractor over a specific period of time.
- The main contents of an interim bill or payment containing all the details of the measurements along with the measurement book.
- The Interim bill or payment also contains details of the recovery, deduction, advance or additional payment to the contractor before the work is completed.
Elements used in Project Management pdf
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Frequently Asked Questions
1.Deposit works are the works whose cost is to be deposit from non-government funds.
2.The funds are deposit in cash at the disposal of the Divisional Officer.
3.The PWD’s prepare the design and estimate of the accumulated works and then a fixed percentage is added to cover the departmental expenditure.
4.The work done by PWD on behalf of municipalities or public bodies falls in this category.
1.A BOQ is a document which lists all the necessary items for the construction of a project.
2.The process of writing the Bill of Quantities called Billing.
3.In other words, it is a description of various items of work that give a description of the unit of properties and rates.
4.The main function of BOQ is to provide a basis on which tenders can be obtained from prospective contractors.
5.BOQ also helps in preparing Revised Estimates.
1.A document in which the list or Schedule of rates of different items prepares for the rate analysis of an item. This document refers to as SOR.
2.SOR prepares by large public bodies or concerns.
3.SOR consists of a set of items of work during the entire construction process.
4.It also serves as an important document for the CPWD (Central Public Works Department). The scheduled rates of CPWD include basic rates of material, labour etc.