ELEMENTS OF TOWN & CITY PLANNING

ELEMENTS OF TOWN & CITY PLANNING

TOWN & CITY PLANNING is the process of the design and planning of buildings to make it attractive and convenient. It involves both the planning, control of construction, population growth. Also, the development of towns and cities or other urban areas. In addition, it is an art of creating and guiding the physical growth of the town or city. For developing infrastructure and environments to meet the various needs of the public such as social, economic, cultural, recreational, etc. Also, to provide a healthy condition for the public to live, to work and to relax.

The basic objective of city planning is to fulfil the basic needs of our future generations. Also, to prevent the disorganized growth of the town or a city. Introduction to town planning, principles and objectives. All these terms have been explained in our previous post. There are various elements of the town & city planning, which serves to create an attractive and comfortable lifestyle.

Therefore, in this post, we will look at the Elements of Town & City Planning. Such as urban areas, classification of towns, elements of city planning, survey for town planning, what is Zoning? Also, its purpose. What is a Master plan? Different types of plans, Building By-laws, etc.

What is an URBAN AREA?

  • An urban area is a human settlement with high population density and also the built environment infrastructure.
  • Urban areas are developing through Urbanization. In addition, they are classified by Urban morphology such as Cities, towns, conurbations or suburbs.
  • Urban areas are developed, meaning the density of human structures such as houses, commercial buildings, roads, bridges and railways, etc. In other words, urban areas are areas that have the density of human settlement as well as the infrastructure built to meet the basic needs of the population.
  • Urbanization means the shift from a rural to an urban society. In other words, when people migrated from Rural to Urban areas (for towns to cities) for employment and job opportunities.

Classification of TOWNS

Towns can be classified on different grounds and organization of different classifications of different countries and cities can be used. This can be based on the income level, education level, per capita income, etc. All cities or places with Municipal Corporation, Corporation, Cantonment Board or Notified Municipal Area Committee, etc. are satisfied with the following criteria:

  • Minimum population of at least 5000 people.
  • Non-agricultural work employs at least 75% of the male population.
  • The density of population of at least 400 people per km.

TYPES OF TOWNS

1. STATUTORY TOWN’s in Town & City Planning

The first category of Urban units is known as a Statutory Town. These cities are also notified under the law by the concerned State / Union Territory Government. They have local bodies such as Municipal Corporation, Municipality, Municipal Committee, etc. For instance Vadodara (Municipal Corporation); Shimla (Municipal Corporation); etc.

2. CENSUS TOWN’s in Town & City Planning

Census Town is the second category of urban units or towns. These cities are only based on the 2001 census. It can also be classified into six categories based on their population.

  • More than 1 lakh population- Class 1 Town
  • 50,00 to 99,999 population- Class 2 Town
  • 20,000 to 49,999 population- Class 3 Town
  • 10,000 to 19,999 population- Class 4 Town
  • 5,000 to 9,999 population- Class 5 Town
  • Less than 5,000 population- Class 6 Town

3. URBAN AGGLOMERATION in Town & City Planning

An urban agglomeration is a continuous urban sprawl that occurs without the inclusion of a town. Moreover, its adjacent Outgrowths (OGs) or two more physically contiguous cities or the dispersal of such towns. It should consist of at least a Statutory Town or a population of not less than 20,000 people as per the 2001 Census.

4. OUT GROWTH’s in Town & City Planning

An outgrowth (OG) is a viable unit such as a village, hamlet and a block. These areas or units are made up of such villages as well as the settlements. And also they are clearly identifiable in terms of its boundaries and location. Buildings like the Railway Colonies, University Campus, Military Campus, etc. For instance: Central Railway Colony (OG’s), etc.

Elements of TOWN & CITY PLANNING

  • Communication & Transportation
  • Open Space (Such as Parks, Playgrounds, Recreational, Residential Units)
  • Built-Up Area
  • Public Utility Services (Like Electricity, Gas, Telephone, Fire Safety)
  • Public Amenities (Such as Post offices, Bank, Police Station, Solid-Waste disposal, Petrol Pump, Court, etc)

Survey for TOWN & CITY PLANNING

The various Surveys conducted for Town & City planning schemes can be broadly divided into the following four types:

1. PRELIMINARY SURVEY

The main objective of the Preliminary survey is to determine the approximate extent of the area. Generally, the topics covered in the Preliminary survey are as follows:

  • Electrical Power
  • Water Supply & Sewerage
  • Waterways
  • General Amenities
  • Highways
  • Railways
  • Housing
  • Industries
  • Land Use

2. NATIONAL SURVEY

The study of natural resources gives a comprehensive approach to the needs of city and country planning schemes. Moreover, the policy and procedure adopted by the nation as a whole greatly influence the proposals for town planning schemes. Therefore, the topics which usually follows are:

  • Administration
  • Agriculture
  • Economic Development
  • Urban Settlement
  • Geography
  • Communication Facilities
  • Natural Resources

3. CIVIC SURVEY

Civic or town surveys are planned and conducted with special reference to the conditions around the city. In addition, the topics covered in the Civic survey are as follows:

  • Public Amenities
  • Topography
  • Land Use & Land Values
  • Historical Background
  • Housing
  • Industries
  • Population
  • Natural Features

4. REGIONAL SURVEY

The Regional survey is conducted on a slightly larger scale than the Civic survey of the area. Moreover, in this survey physical economics factors, physical factors and socio-economic factors are also covered under the city plan.

Also Read: City Planning of Chandigarh

What is ZONING?

Zoning is the way in which the government controls the physical development of land. Also, the type of use of each individual property. These Zoning laws and Zoning districts generally specify the area in which residential, industrial, recreational or commercial activities may occur. The zoning ordinance is the legal regulation of land use. So, the Zones are called zoning districts. Therefore, each of these lands is a permit under the fixed use of land according to specific standards. Moreover, the Zoning is done by controlling land uses, building height, density, building setbacks, parking, etc.

Advantages of Zoning

  • Future Development
  • General Amenities
  • Modification & Revision of Plan
  • Population Distribution as well as Growth
  • Public Utility Services

Land Use in TOWN & CITY PLANNING

Land use in town planning can be broadly classified into the following categories:

1. Profit Making Land use in Town & City Planning

Land that has been developed for profit making. For instance: Site developed for offices, Residence, etc.

2. Non-Profit Making Land use in Town & City Planning

Land that has been developed without any profit motifs. For instance: Roads, Parks, Playgrounds, etc.

Purpose of ZONING:

  • Promote and protect public health, safety as well as the general welfare.
  • Providing adequate illumination, air, privacy along with the convenience of access to the property.
  • To protect the character and stability of residential, commercial, agricultural, etc., as well as to promote the orderly and beneficial development of such areas.
  • Also, reducing congestion on public highways and roads
  • Regulating the intensity of land use. In addition, determining the area of ​​open spaces around buildings and structures necessary to protect public health.
  • Preventing over-crowding of land and improper concentration of structures.
  • Protection of taxable value of land and buildings.

What is MASTER PLAN?

Master Plan Concepts
Master Plan Concepts
  • Master Plan also refers as ‘Development Plan’ or ‘Town Plan’.
  • A plan for the future layout of a city showing existing and proposed streets or roads, open spaces, public buildings, etc. The plan is called the Master Plan.
  • It is a dynamic long-term planning document. It also provides a conceptual layout to direct future growth and development.
  • The master plan is about making connections between buildings, social settings as well as the surrounding environment.
  • It may have an important role in determining the size of urban environments. In addition, it is a document designed to guide the future work of a community.
  • A Master plan is a blueprint for the future. It is generally preparing for the next 10–20 years.
  • The master plan is a future planning document that uses current data as well as past data for future projections.

Preparation of Master Plan:

The following procedure is used for preparing the Master plan. They are as follows:

  • Legal Process
  • Technical Process
  • Public Process
  • Management Process
  • The weakness of Master Plan
Process of Preparing Master Plan
Process of Preparing Master Plan

Objectives of Master Plan:

  • It aims for the wise and economical expenditure of public funds to achieve the welfare of residents in relation to facilities, convenience as well as health.
  • It arranges the pattern of the city in such a way that the present need can be met by the coming generation without the introduction of future improvements.
  • Master Plan helps to prevent the random growth of a city or town.
  • It performs various tasks that a city performs in physical relationships with each other so as to avoid the possibility of mutual conflict.
  • In addition, it serves as a guide for the planning body to make any recommendations for public reform.
  • Also, it provides a healthy physical environment in the city.
  • The main objective of the master plan is to give direction to the future development of the development area. Also, to make viable practical adjustments in already unplanned land.
  • Provide basic amenities services and balanced delivery to the citizens.
  • Moreover, it provides the interrelationship between various land uses of the city.
  • It also removes the defects of coordinated physical development of various components of the city.

Elements of Master Plan:

  • Goals & Policy
  • Land Use
  • Housing
  • Economic Development
  • Natural Resources
  • Open Space/ Recreational Space
  • Public Services
  • Transportation & Circulations
  • Implementations as well as Other Elements

Types of Plans in Town & City Planning:

Various types of plans are prepared under the planning system. In addition, all these plans are interlinked throughout the planning process. They are as follows:

Relationship-of-The-Planning-System
Relationship-of-The-Planning-System

1. PERSPECTIVE PLAN

  • A long-term written document.
  • A Perspective Plan is based on state resources mapping, analysis and assessment of potential resources.
  • It also provides a policy framework for the preparation of detailed plans.
  • In addition, it serves as a guide for the Urban Local Authority in preparation of the development plan.
  • A Perspective Plan is generally prepared for 20-25 years.

2. REGIONAL PLAN

  • A Visionary Conceptual Plan
  • The regional plan focuses on balanced development. for example:
    • They plan for a hierarchy of settlements in both rural and urban areas
    • Hierarchy of connectivity networks (transport hub, road, rail, etc.)
    • Focus on land use as well as resource mobilization
    • Risk management along with environmental protection
  • It is generally for a period of 10 years

3. DEVELOPMENT PLAN

  • The development plan also refers to as Master Plan.
  • A development plan is preparing for 10-20 years

4. DISTRICT PLAN

  • An integrated plan for the local government sector.
  • A vision document is for 10-15 years

5. LOCAL AREA PLAN / ZONAL PLAN

  • Local Area plans to be prepared for various activities. Some of these are as follows:
    • To guide the development or re-development of land
    • Conservation of buildings as well as physical features
    • Providing improvements in the physical layout
    • For making infrastructure and amenities
    • To enhance the health and safety of the residents as well as the quality of life
  • A plan prepares for a period of 5-20 years.

6. ANNUAL PLAN

  • The annual plan is to be prepared by the local authority every financial year.
  • It is an important document for resource mobilization.
  • The Annual Plan also provides a mechanism for development planning and monitoring the progress of various projects.
  • Mostly planned for a local level or city level as well as physical resources (financial part-revenue) is considered.
  • An annual plan is generally preparing for one year.

7. SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONE

  • The aim of the special economic zones is to promote trade as well as economics.
  • A plan is generally preparing for a period of 5-20 years.

What is Building Bye-Laws?

Building by-laws are rules and laws made by the city and city planning authorities that cover the requirements of buildings. It also ensuring public safety through open spaces, minimum size and height of rooms, area boundaries, etc. In addition, rules and laws that govern building activity to a large extent should be designed for the disciplined development of the building and better-planned development of towns and cities.

Objectives of Building Bye-Laws:

  • Pre-planning of Building Activity
  • Allow Orderly Growth & also prevent haphazard development
  • By-law provisions generally provide protection against noise, fire, health hazards and structure failure
  • It also provides for the proper use of space to achieve maximum efficiency in planning.
  • Due to by-law rules and regulations, every building will have a proper approach to lighting, air and ventilation, etc.

Applicability of Building Bye-Laws:

  • New Construction
  • Additional and alterations in a Building
  • Changing of occupancy of Buildings (for instance Residential to Educational)
  • The land is being developed
  • In demolition

Elements of TOWN & COUNTRY PLANNING pdf

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Frequently Asked Questions

What is an Urban Area?

1.An urban area is a human settlement with high population density and also the built environment infrastructure.
2.Urban areas are developing through Urbanization. In addition, they are classified by Urban morphology such as Cities, towns, conurbations or suburbs.
3.Urban areas are developed, meaning the density of human structures such as houses, commercial buildings, roads, bridges and railways, etc. In other words, urban areas are areas that have the density of human settlement as well as the infrastructure built to meet the basic needs of the population.
4.Urbanization means the shift from a rural to an urban society. In other words, when people migrated from Rural to Urban areas (for towns to cities) for employment and job opportunities.

Process of Preparing Master Plan

1.Formation of Goals & Objectives
2.Collection of Data & Information
3.Analysis of Information
4.Plan Preparation
5.Publishing notice for Objections & Suggestions
6.Plan finalization
7.Implementation
8.Monitoring & Feedback

What is Building Bye-Laws?

Building by-laws are rules and laws made by the city and city planning authorities that cover the requirements of buildings. It also ensuring public safety through open spaces, minimum size and height of rooms, area boundaries, etc. In addition, rules and laws that govern building activity to a large extent should be designed for the disciplined development of the building and better-planned development of towns and cities.

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