Climatic zones are the division of the Earth climatic zones, according to their average temperature and rainfall. The regions having similar climatic factors are group together in one climatic zone. Based on the climatic factors, it is subdivided into six numbers of climatic zones in India. The climatic zones of India are Hot & Dry, Warm & Humid, Moderate, Cold & Cloudy, Cold & Sunny and Composite.
In this article, we will discuss the Climate, Weather, Climatic Zones and the Climatic Zones in India, the types and factors of it.
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Climatology is an important part of Architecture, which deals with the knowledge about climatic zones and factors, elements of climate for tropical as well as site climate. It also deals with the thermal comfort and its zones for various seasons, heat, gain and loss, U-values of walls and roofs of the building.
Climatology refers to the study of building materials & construction techniques of energy-efficient building design for tropical climate. Also in this included, the ventilation system, air movement and daylight illumination, passive system, shading devices, solar geometry and solar heating and cooling systems, etc.
What is CLIMATE?
Climate is the representation of a long term pattern of weather, of a particular region or area. A region or an area with a certain condition of temperatures, dryness, wind, humidity, rainfall, etc. define as a ‘Climate’ of a particular area. It can also be defined as the integration of time in weather conditions.
The word Weather is using in terms of Temperature, Humidity, Rainfall, Wind, Cloudiness, Brightness, Atmospheric Pressure and Precipitation. The weather is the process of the atmosphere is behaving, mainly for its effect upon life and human activities.
ELEMENTS OF CLIMATE
The degree of hotness or coldness of atmosphere is Temperature. It इस It is measured measured in Degree Celsius or Fahrenheit. Its affected by Solar Radiation, Latitude, Altitude, Ocean Currents, Aspects and Sea Proximity.
2. Rainfall or Precipitation
It a term given to moisture, its fall from the air to the ground in the form of Rain, Snow, Fog, Mist, etc. Types of Rainfall are Conventional, Frontal and Relief Rainfall.
It is the level of water in the air, more water vapours in air higher the humidity. Humidity varies with Temperature. Warmer air can hold more moisture.
4. Air Pressure
Air pressure is the weight of air above the ground. Low-Pressure air is warmer and lighter and the High-Pressure air is cold and become heavier.
5. Wind Pressure
The wind is the movement of air from high pressure to low pressure. The speed of the wind is determined by the difference between the high and low pressure.
6. Solar Radiation
It is the radiant energy receive from the sun. The radiation of the sun on the earth surface varies from moment to moment depending on its orientation, geographical location, seasons and atmospheric conditions. The instruments used for measuring the solar radiations are the Pyrometer and Pyrheliometer. The duration of sunshine is measure using a Sunshine Recorder.
Vegetation is the character and the abundance of plant life. It influences local or site climate factors. It is an important element of design for outdoor spaces, providing sun-shading, etc.
8. Sky Condition
Sky Condition is used in terms of presence and absence of clouds. It affects the design of overhangs, roofs and shading devices. Clouds can be of different groups, it depends on their height, shape and size.
A tropical climate is a region, where heat is the major problem. The two main atmospheric factors which influence human comfort are the Air Pressure and Humidity. According to the tropical region of the earth, the three major climatic zones and the three subgroups are divided and they are:
- Warm-Humid Equatorial Climate
- Warm-Humid Island Climate
- Hot-Dry Desert Climate
- Hot-Dry Martine Desert Climate
- Composite or Monsoon Climate
- Tropical Upland Climate
CLIMATIC REGIONS IN INDIA
As we above discussed the Climate and the Climatic Zones. now we will discuss on Climatic Zones in India. According to the recent code of Bureau of Indian Standard, the climatic zones of the country be divided into five major zones. The Cold & Cloudy, Cold & Sunny are group together as Cold Climate zone and also the Moderate climate is renamed as Temperate Climate. Some of the main features of Climatic Zones in India are as follows:
Hot & Dry Zone
Terrain: It is usually flat with sandy or rocky ground condition.
Region Lies: Western & Central part of India.
Cities: Jodhpur, Jaisalmer and Sholapur.
Vegetation: Cacti, Thorny trees and bushes.
Temperature: In summer, 40-45 (day time) and 17-27 (in night time)
Relative Humidity: Humidity is low, ranging from 25 to 40%
Annual Precipitation: Less than 500 mm.
Wind: Hot wind blow and sand storms during the day in summer. In the night, the wind is cool and pleasant.
Hot & Humid Zone
Region: Coastal part of India.
Cities: Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata.
Vegetation: High humidity encourages heavy vegetation.
Temperature: In summer, 30-35 (day time) and 25-30 (in night time).
Relative Humidity: Humidity is high, ranging from 70 to 90%
Annual Precipitation: High about 1200 mm.
Region: Central part of India.
Cities: New Delhi, Kanpur and Allahabad.
Vegetation: Variable landscape and seasonal vegetation.
Temperature: In summer, 32-43 (day time) and 27-32 (in night time) and in Winter, 10-25 (day time) and 4-10 (in night time).
Relative Humidity: In Dry periods 20-25% and Wet periods 55-95%
Annual Precipitation: Varies Between 500-1300 mm per year.
Cold Climate Zone
a. Cold Cloudy
Region: Northern part of India.
Cities: Shimla, Shilong and Srinagar.
Temperature: In summer, 20-30 (day time) and 17-27 (in night time)
Relative Humidity: Humidity is high, ranging from 70 to 80%
b. Cold Sunny
Region: Mountainous Region of India.
Cities: Leh, Ladakh and Siachen.
Temperature: In summer, 17-24 (day time) and 4-11 (in night time) and in Winters, 7 to 8 (day time) and -14 to 0 (in night time).
Relative Humidity: Humidity is low, ranging from 10 to 50%
Moderate or Temperate Zone
Region: Hilly/High plateau regions of India.
Cities: Nasik, Pune and Bangalore.
Temperature: In summer, 30-34 (day time) and 17-24 (in night time) and in Winters, 27-33 (day time) and 16-18 (in night time).
CLIMATIC ZONES OF INDIA PDF
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