TYPES OF ARCHITECTURAL STYLES
There are different types of Architecture and Architectural Styles are exists in all over the world. Each of these Architectural styles has its unique properties, styles, concepts and philosophies too. These Architectural styles are also are a resemblance of the particular era’s with its distinct features, art and architectural styles.
So, in this post we will discuss the different era’s of Architectural Styles and it’s Types. Also, about its Architectural Features, Construction Materials, Building Elements as well as the Development of particular Architectural Styles.
1. GREEK ARCHITECTURAL STYLE
- Greek Architecture is also known as a “Classical Architecture” because of its columnar and trabeated (‘trab’ means beam) style.
- Established: During 500 BC-600 BC
- Location: In Greece and near the numerous coastal islands.
- Materials Used: Stones and Marbles
- Elements used in Buildings: It is famous for its statutory and sculptures.
- Development of Greek Architecture: Three different Architectural systems called ‘Orders’. Each of them has its properties, proportions and detailing. The term ‘Orders’ is the study of form, shape, detailing and the proportions of a column. ‘Orders’ of Greek Architecture are-
Most important Buildings in Greek Architecture Style are:
- Parthenon of Athens- Temple Building
- Agora- Market Place and Square of the City Centre.
- Theatre Epidaurus- An open-air theatre.
- Erechtheion at Athens- Temple Building.
2. ROMAN ARCHITECTURAL STYLE
- Roman Architecture and style is also known as a reproductive part of the Greek Architecture. Both Greek and Roman Styles and its Architecture is together considering as a body of ‘Classical Architecture’.
- Established: During 400 BC-400 AD
- Location: Centered from Rome and spread to the European Continent, West Asia and Northern Africa.
- Building Materials: Stones and Marbles
- Elements used in Buildings: It is famous for its Arches, Domes, Vaults, Columns and Aqueducts.
- Development of Roman Architecture: Inspired from the three original Greek Architectural Orders. Each of them has its properties, proportions and detailing. Roman’s developed two new orders-
Most important Buildings in Roman Architecture Style are:
1. Pantheon at Rome, Italy-
- Built-in 126 AD
- Circular in plan, 44m in diameter. Octa-style portico is 33.5m wide and 18 m deep in the center from the entrance to the circular temple.
- A building is built with a grand porch (Oculus), three rows of columns and a dome with an Rotunda (open to the sky).
- The structure is still the world largest unreinforced concrete dome until today.
2. Colosseum at Rome, Italy-
- Built-in 80 AD by Emperor Vespasian, Titus.
- It is the world largest open-air theatre or ‘amphitheater’.
- The material used for construction is Concrete and Stone.
- It is also known as one of the greatest works of Roman Architecture & Engineering.
3. BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURAL STYLE
- Established: During 400 AD- 1000AD
- Location: In Turkey, with the capital city of Constantinople, Istanbul.
- Construction Style: ‘ARCUATE’ style.
- Materials used: Marble Mosaic and Glass Mosaic mainly for Interior decoration. Brick is the chief material of construction in Byzantine Architecture.
- Elements used in Buildings: It is famous for its unique Dome construction with Pendentive (a triangular section of vaulting and squinches).
- Architectural Styles and its Features:
- Development of domes
- Columns were used to support the structure and galleries
- Semicircular openings for doors and windows
- Moldings were rare
- Walls were fully covered with marble mosaics
- Devoid of sculptures
- Flat roof with small openings
- Open courtyards
- Statues were absent
- Marble casing and mosaics used for ornamental work
- Painted figures was used as a decorative feature in eastern churches
- Windows in lower portions
- Segmental and horseshoe arches and vaults
- Planning and Construction:
- Centralized planning
- Domes made by means of spherical Pendentive
- Constructed by bricks or of light porous stone (pumice) or pottery
- Constructed without temporary supports (centering)
- Exterior facades were decorated with various design patterns in brickwork.
- Interiors were radiant with beautiful pavements and walls were fully covered with marbles, mosaics & fresco decoration.
- Use of cement started in roman period.
- Byzantine architecture also became stereo- typed in its construction.
- Bricks was used for the construction of domes
- Oriental domes – a symbol of faith.
- System of domical roof became the chief motif of design.
- The domes were constructed without centering with thin radiating bricks or light weight pumice stones to lessen the side thrust on supporting walls.
- Types of Dome-
- Onion Shape
Most important Buildings in Byzantine Architecture Style are:
- Hagia Sophia, Istanbul.
- St. Marks at Venice.
4. ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURAL STYLE
- Establish: During 1000 AD- 1200AD (Middle Age).
- Location: Found all over Europe, the main influencing region in Europe is Germany, Italy, England, France, and Spain.
- Feature of Romanesque Style:
- Include Turrets
- Rounded Arches
- Hipped or Pointed Roofs
- Heavy Rusticated Stonework
- Great work on proportion, shape and size of the details.
- The three main Architectural Typologies-
- Development of Romanesque Art:
- End of Barbarian invasions.
- Establishment of peace in the Christian world.
Most important Buildings in Byzantine Architecture Style are:
- Pisa Cathedral, Italy
- Bath Abbey Church, England
5. GOTHIC ARCHITECTURAL STYLE
- Establish: During 1200 AD- 1600AD.
- It was evolved during Romanesque Architecture and succeeded by Renaissance Architecture.
- Gothic Style expressed as more powerfully because of its churches, cathedrals and many civic buildings.
- Architecture Style is also known as ‘French Style’.
- Characteristics of Gothic Architecture:
- Skeleton Stone structures
- Visual Arts- the role of light in buildings
- Cathedrals are considered as ‘An image of Heaven’.
- Large Windows and stained glass painted with Bible stories
- Tall Minarets and Pointed Arches
- Flying Buttresses and Rib Vaults
- High Ceilings and Long Beam Column (create a sense of flying)
- The planning of the structure is based on ‘Latin Cross’
- They focus on Verticality; the structures are vertical and slender in appearance.
- Ornaments and Pinnacles
- Feature of Gothic Style:
- Pointed Arches
- Ribbed Vault
- Flying Buttress
- Large Stained Glass Windows
- Ornate decoration
- High Floating Walls- Arcade and Triforium
- Tracery- Rose Window
Most important Buildings in Gothic Architecture Style are:
- Cologne Cathedral, Germany
- Westminster Abbey Church, London
- Notre Dame Cathedral, Paris
6. EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURAL STYLE
- Establish: In 3000BC.
- Ancient Egyptian Architecture is one of the most influential civilizations throughout history that spread along the river Nile. In this civilization, great architectural monuments and a huge set of diverse structures developed.
- Architectural Style: Columnar and Trabeated (trab means beam) style.
- Materials Used for Tools and Weapons:
- Developments of Egyptian Architecture:
- A system of Mathematics and a new form of literature
- Irrigation system and agricultural production techniques
- Pottery and Sculpture
- Egyptian faience and glass-making technology
- The first known Plank Boats
- Independent writing system- ‘Hieroglyphic writing’, which means ‘sacred words’ or ‘God’s words’. It is a formal script, used in tombs and on stone monuments.
- During the 5th century BC, the first coin was introduced in Egypt (as standardized pieces of the precious metal) in the form of money.
- Materials Used for Construction:
- Mud Bricks and Sun-dried Bricks
- Limestone, Sandstone and Granite
- Papyrus and Reeds
- Palm-branch Ribs
- Architectural Styles & it’s Characteristics:
- Flat Roofs- to cover and exclude heat
- No windows
- Provides Skylights, Roof slits and loft
- Maximum use of Torus mouldings (such as Gorge or hollow and roll)
- Massive walls and continuous spaces for hieroglyphics
- Stones were reserve for tombs and temples.
- Bricks are used for:
- Subsidiary buildings
- Royal Palaces
- House of the citizens
- Boundary Walls of Towns and Temples
8. Different styles of Capitals and Columns:
- Bell and Bud Capital (inverted bell and lotus bud)
- Volute Capital
- Hathor- Headed Capital
- Polygonal Column
- Palm Shaped Column
- Osiris Column
- Papyrus Capital
- Square Column
9. Different types of Ornamentation Styles for unique purposes:
- ‘Fertility’ – Lotus, Papyrus and Palm
- ‘Protection’ – Solar Discs and Vultures with wings
- ‘Eternity’ – Spiral and Feather Ornament
- ‘Resurrection’ – Scarabs and Sacred Beetle
10. Types of Buildings and Monuments in Egyptian Civilization:
- ‘Mastabas’ meaning a ‘Bench’ (an Arabic word).
Examples of Mastabas are:
- Mastaba of Aha, Saqqara
- Mastaba at Giza
2. Rock Cut Tombs and Rock-Hewn Tombs
Examples of Rock Cut Tombs are:
- The tomb of ‘Trit- Aukh- Amon at Thebes
- The tomb of Beni Hasan
Examples of Pyramids are:
- The Giza Pyramid, Egypt
- The Pyramid of Chephren or Khafra at Giza, Egypt.
The temples were made on a rectangular plan. They are generally two types:
- Mortuary Temples
- Cult Temples
Examples of Temples are:
- Temple of Amun, Karnak
- Temple of Luxor, Egypt
Most important Buildings in Egyptian Architecture Style are:
1. Great Pyramid Of Giza, Egypt
- Constructed during 2560-2540 BC.
- It is also known as the Pyramid of ‘Khufu’ or the Pyramid of ‘Cheops’.
- The largest and oldest of all the three pyramids.
- It is one of the tallest man-made structures in the world.
2. Great Sphinx of Giza, Egypt
- Sphinx is a limestone statue, which rests on the west bank of the River Nile in Egypt.
- A monolithic statue resembles a mythical creature with a human head and a lion body.
- It is the largest monolithic statue in the world.
7. TEMPLE ARCHITECTURAL STYLE
- Beginning of Hindu Temple is in Gupta period or Gupta Dynasty.
- The Gupta’s were the first architect’s, who built to purpose Hindu temples(but sometimes also Buddhists) which evolved from the earlier tradition of rock –cut shrines.
- Gupta Dynasty, founded by the Chandragupta I ruled in North Central India between the 4th to 6th centuries and this period is also considered as a ‘Golden Age of India’ with artistic accomplishment.
- Brahmanical order was revived during this period. Temples were constructed because of the religious spirit.
FOR MORE DETAILS READ: TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE
8. RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURAL STYLE
- Establish: During the period between the early 15th and 17th centuries.
- The term ‘Renaissance’ meaning ‘rebirth’.
- Renaissance Architecture followed Greek Architecture and succeeded by Baroque architecture. The style was drawn from France, England, Russia, Germany and other parts of Europe.
- Location: First started in Italy and different parts of Europe.
- Construction Style: It emphasis on Symmetry, Geometry, Proportion and the regularity in designs elements
- The two principal components of Renaissance style are:
- The arrival of the classical forms originally developed by the ancient Greeks and Romans.
- A deep concern with secular life. Also, have a great interest in ‘Humanism’ and the ‘importance of the individual’.
- Material Used: Stones, Marbles, Terracotta Tile and Stucco Art (a mixture of mortar).
- Elements used in Buildings:
- Planning and design of a building
- Columns and Pilasters
Most important Buildings in ‘Renaissance Architecture Style’ are:
- The Cathedral Santa Maria, Florence
- St. Peter’s Basilica, Rome
9. MODERN ARCHITECTURAL STYLES
1. ORGANIC ARCHITECTURE STYLE
- The term ‘Organic Architecture’ was created by an American architect ‘F.L. Wright’.
- It is a philosophy of Architecture which helps to develop the harmony between the human and the environment.
2. ART NOUVEAU ARCHITECTURE STYLE
- A style of art and architecture that was popular during 1890-1910.
- Art Nouveau style was flourishing in most of the area of Europe.
- The Style was inspired by the natural forms and structures like plants and flowers and also in Curved lines.
- Elements Used: Stained Glass, Mosaics Glass and Japanese motifs.
- Antoni Gaudi, a Catalan architect. The famous person who worked in these styles in many places in Barcelona, Spain.
Art Nouveau Architectural Styles:
- Eel Style
- Noodle Style
- Muttol Bone Style
- Newist Kunst
- Important Buildings:
- Chicago School of Architecture
- Casa Mila, Barcelona
3. ART DECO ARCHITECTURAL STYLES
- Art Deco is a style that emerged in 1908s to 1935s.
- It is an artistic design style that was first appeared in Paris, France and flourished internationally before World War I.
- Material Used: Wood, Marble, Metal and Lacquer
Architectural Styles of Art Deco:
- Bold Geometrical forms
- Rich Colors
- Asymmetry Organic Curves
- Linear Symmetry and Appearance in Building Forms
- Sharp Edges
- Decorative Elements-
- Low relief Decorative Panels
- Spandrels in Windows
- Decorative Architraves around Doors and Windows
7. Building designs- Straight Lines and Corners
- Art Deco style was influenced by many different styles of 20th century and also gets inspiration from Egyptian and Aztec buildings.
4. INTERNATIONAL ARCHITECTURAL STYLES
- International Architectural Styles has emerged in the 1920s and 1930s.
- Material Used: Concrete, Bricks and Glass.
- It was considered as a major Architectural style. In this style, some elements and materials are restricted in building design or structure.
- The design and construction of a building are generally squares and rectangular. The facades of the building are flat and fully covered with glass windows on the outside. In other words, the faces of the building are in 90-degree angles.
5. MID-CENTURY MODERN ARCHITECTURAL STYLES
- An architectural style is taken from the mid-20th century and in modern design from 1933 to 1965.
- This style is a combination of many elements of the earliest styles like curved line and symmetry of Art Deco style, with some simplicity of the International styles.
6. POST MODERN ARCHITECTURAL STYLES
- The Post-modern Architecture started as an international style or from mid to the late 20th century.
- In Post-modern Architecture style, the simple, functional and traditional shapes of the modernist style are replaced by the diverse aesthetics.
- In this era, new ways of viewing with familiar styles are found.
Architectural Styles and Concepts of Post-Modern Architectural Styles:
- High Ceilings
- Flying Buttresses
- Double Coding
- Irony, Paradox & Contextualism
Buildings of Post-Modernism Architectural Styles:
- Vidhan Bhawan, New Delhi, India (Wikipedia)
- Lotus Temple, New Delhi, India (Wikipidea)
- Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao, Spain
- Portland Building, USA
For any queries related to this topic and if you want any post on other subjects. So feel free to suggest us in the comment section.
Frequently Asked Questions
Architectural Style is a term used to depict the style of that particular era or decade.
Now a days, mostly we can see Modern Architectural Styles.
1. Greek Architecture
2. Roman Architecture
3. Byzantine Architecture
4. Romanesque Architecture
5. Gothic Architecture
6. Egyptian Architecture
7. Temple Architecture
8. Renaissance Architecture
9. Industrial Revolution
10. Modern Architectural Styles
Greek Architectural, Gothic Architectural and Egyptian Architectural Styles.